In the countries of the European Union, starting from 2020, regulations on vehicle emissions come into force. For violation of these rules, European automakers may be fined for a total of up to 14 billion euros, according to the IHS Marlit study. Analysts at Exane BNP Paribas called the French concerns PSA Group and Renault the most inconsistent with the European norms on emissions. Previously, automakers could achieve compliance with the rules due to diesel engines, which consume 20% less fuel than gasoline. But the scandals with the overestimation of Volkswagen emissions have dramatically reduced the demand for such cars, as a result, average CO2 emissions of cars in Europe rose in 2017 for the first time in many years.